Category: Anatomy

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Abdominal Aorta

The abdominal aorta is the largest artery of the abdominal cavity.  The aorta originates at the heart, forms and arch and then continues as the descending aorta.    Above the diaphragm, it is called the thoracic aorta; below the diaphragm, it is called the abdominal aorta.  There are …

Urinary Bladder

The urinary bladder collects urine excreted by the kidneys.  It is a hollow, expandable structure located in the lower abdomen.   The photo below shows the urinary bladder of a sheep.  The bladder is the balloon-like structure in the upper right area of the tray.   It is …

Eye Dissection

Procedural video showing how to dissect the eye and identify the major structures such as the lens, iris, pupil, vitreous humor, retina, optic disk, optic nerve. and tapetum.  Unlike humans, cows have a reflective surface on the back of their eye which enables them to see in the …

Eye – Vitreous Humor

The vitreous humor is the clear gel that fills the space between the lens and the retina.  On the cow eye, this can usually be removed in a single clump of thick liquid, unlike the aqueous humor which is thin and watery. Most eye floaters are caused by …

Label the Parts of the Ear

1. Auricle 2. External Auditory Meatus 3. Tympanic Membrane 4.  Tympanic Cavity 5.  Round Window 6.  Eustachian Tube 7.  Cochlea 8.  Vestibulocochlear nerve 9.  Semicircular canals 10.  Stapes 12.  Incus 13.  Malleus 15. Outer Ear 16. Middle Ear 17.  Inner Ear

Brain – Pituitary Gland

The pituitary gland, also called the hypophysis, is associated with the endocrine system.  It it located on the ventral side of the brain attached to the hypothalamus.   Under the direction of the brain, the pituitary gland controls the secretion of hormones that regulate growth, blood pressure, sexual …

Brain – Brain Stem

The brain stem is the posterior section of the brain that includes the pons and the medulla oblongata, which is continuous with the spinal cord.  The midbrain is usually included as part of the brain stem and includes the corpora quadrigemina (shown partially on the photo as the …

Brain – Optic Chiasma

On the ventral side of the sheep’s brain, several nerves and structures are visible after the careful removal of the dura mater.   The image below shows the brain with the dura intact and the eye socket attached.  The blue reflective surface of the sheep tapetum can be …

Cat Muscles – Trapezius

In the cat, the trapezius muscle is divided into three flat muscles that cover the upper back and the neck.  The most anterior of these muscles is the clavotrapezius, named for its insertion into the clavicle. The middle trapezius muscle is the acromiotrapezius, which covers the scapula and …

Brain – Corpus Callosum and Ventricles

This bisected brain shows the major features of the midbrain and brain stem.  The corpus callosum is just been the cortex of the brain and connects the left and right hemispheres.    The lateral ventricle is a fluid filled space found below the corpus callosum and just about …

Brain – Transverse Fissure

The cerebrum and cerebellum of the brain are divided by the transverse fissure.   The left and right hemispheres of the brain are divided by the longitudinal fissure. A fissure is a groove or a natural division, and with the brain are divide major regions. Sulci (singular: sulcus) are …

Brain – Pineal Gland

The pineal gland (also called pineal body) is located in the midbrain and is one of the few non-paired structures of the brain.     The pineal gland is part of the endocrine system and produces the hormone melatonin.  Melatonin is associated with sleep patterns and circadian rhythms. …

Neuroglial Cells

Neuroglial cells are sometimes simply called “glia” which in Greek, means “glue.”  These cells support the neurons by providing insulation, supplying nutrients, and removing dangerous pathogens.   Each cell of the glia can be identified on a diagram by examining the general location, attachment to other stuctures and …

Cat Muscles – Sartorius, Gracilis, and Semitendinosus

The sartorius muscle is the longest muscle in the human body, extending from the hip to the inside of the thigh.  On the cat, this muscle is much more compact, and covers the thigh and knee joint as a superficial muscle.   It is shown on the photo …

Pectoralis Muscles of the Cat

This cat illustrates the three pectoralis muscles:  the pectoantebrachialis, the pectoralis major, and the pectoralis minor.    One way to find the pectoantebrachialis is to stretch the forelimbs of the cat which will reveal the bordering fascia.  This muscles goes straight across the chest and to the forelimbs. …

Skull – Zygomatic Bone

The zygomatic bone articulates with the maxilla and the temporal bone and is the bone that makes up the cheek of the face.   The zygomatic process of the temporal bone is an extension of the temporal bone that connects to the zygomatic bone.     On the …

Bones of the Foot

The bones of the ankle are collectively called the tarsals.  The largest bone of this group is the calcaneus (9), or the heel bone.  The talus (8) has an irregular shape and is commonly referred to as the “instep.”   The navicular bone (7) is named for its …

Sella Turcica of the Sphenoid Bone

This structure is names for its resemblance to a “turkish chair” and is found as a saddle-shaped depression on the sphenoid bone.   The indentation (or the seat) is where the pituitary gland is located. To find the sella turcica, locate the sphenoid bone from the inside of the …