Author: anatomycorner

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Esophageal Hiatus

The esophageal hiatus is the opening in the diaphragm through which the esophagus passes and then enters the stomach.  It can be viewed by pushing aside the lungs and heart within the thoracic cavity and tracing the esophagus to the diaphragm.    The inferior vena cava also can …

Label the Urinary System

  Answers: A= Renal Vein B= Right Kidney C= Inferior Vena Cava D = Urinary Bladder E= Renal Artery AB = Right Kidney AC = Abdominal Aorta AD = Ureter AE = Urethra

Heart Anatomy Using Models

Heart models can be useful for learning the structure of the heart, particularly when paired with a dissection.   They can be purchased at a reasonable cost at Amazon, usually mounted in a way that you can see the external and internal anatomy. When doing the dissection of …

Ascending, Transverse, Descending Colon

The small intestine connects to the colon where a valve regulates the movement of food.  The ileocecal valve is named for the ileum and the cecum it connects to.  The cecum is a pouch-like section of the large intestine that is the first part of the colon, also called …

Gall Bladder and Bile Duct

The gall bladder is a structure found under the liver of many vertebrates, including humans, where it stores bile that is secreted by the liver.  Bile is transported to the duodenum through the bile duct; its main function is to aid in the digestion of fats. In humans, …

Pancreas

The pancreas can be one of the more difficult structures for beginning anatomy students.  This is partly because it is a gland that doesn’t preserve well and can fall apart easily when handling the stomach or other organs.  In ideal specimens, the pancreas can be seen as a bumpy …

Uterine Horns

In cats and many animals that have multiple embryos, the uterus is divided into two sides called the uterine horns.  The ovary can be found at the end of each horn.  In humans, this structure is homologous to the Fallopian Tubes.  The photo below shows only the right …

Renal Pyramid

Renal pyramids are triangular shaped areas seen on a cross section of the kidney.  They appear striped due to the thousands of nephrons within them that make up the functional unit of the kidney.  The nephrons perform the function of filtration of waste products from the blood and …

Skeleton Practical

Many anatomy instructors will include a lab practical with investigations of anatomy.  This is a lab practical given to the class of 2014 over the bones of the human.   Practice by naming the parts, the last photo reveals the answers.  The test I give is different every …

Common Carotid Arteries

The carotid arteries supply blood to the head and neck.  In humans, the right common carotid branches from the brachiocephalic artery and the left common carotid branches directly from the arch of the aorta.   On the cat, as shown in the photograph, both common carotids branch from the …

Chordae Tendinae

The chordae tendinae are tiny tendons that connect the valves of the heart to the papillary muscle.  They appear as small white strings and are sometimes referred to as the “heart strings.”  In the photo below the right ventricle has been cut and the chordae shown are attached to …

Quiz: Veins of the Head and Neck

    1  = Superficial Temporal Vein 2 = Occipital Vein 3 = External Jugular 4 = Vertebral Vein 5 = Axillary (Also the subclavian where it branches from the brachiocephalic) * 6 = Facial Vein 7 = Internal Jugular 8 = Brachiocephalic *The superior vena cava (not shown) …

Larynx and Trachea

The larynx is also known as the voice box and it can easily be found in the throat of mammal specimens (fetal pig shown below.)  The larynx contains the vocal cords that are used for making sounds.  In humans the location of the larynx allows for diverse sounds …

Mitral (or Bicuspid) Valve

The bicuspid and tricuspid valves are both located between the atrium and the ventricle.   They are similar in appearance and can be difficult for beginning anatomists to identify accurately.  There are a couple of different ways to remember and then locate the valves.  First, you must remember …

Vitreous Humor of the Eye

This dissected eye shows the clear gel that fill the space between the lens and the retina of the eye.  In a preserved specimen, the fluid is cloudy and thick, having the consistency of gelatin.  When the eye is cut in half, the lens can be found floating …

Rat Dissection

Students in biology are often tasked with dissecting a frog, but there are many other vertebrate models that can provide a rich experience in learning anatomy.   Common specimens include the fetal pig, shark, mink, cat, and the rat.   Rats are fairly inexpensive and are raised for …

Heart – Systole and Diastole

During the cardiac cycle, two contractions occur.  Systole occurs when the muscles contract and diastole occurs when the muscles relax.   Atrial systole occurs when the atria contract and push blood into the lower ventricles.  During this point, the aortic valve is closed.   Ventricular contraction then occurs …

Video of a Brain Dissection

This video shows the major parts of the brain, starting with the external anatomy where the pituitary gland, optic chiasma (nerves) , olfactory lobes, dura mater, and the parts of the brain stem:  midbrain, pons, medulla, and spinal cord.   The brain is the cut along the longitudinal …