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Epithelial Tissue

Epithelial tissue serves as a covering for external structures (skin) and internal organs.  There are many categories of epithelial cells that many beginning anatomy students must learn to identify.   Generally, epithelial tissue is classified as either simple or stratified.  Stratified tissue consists of many layers of cells …

Epiglottis

The epiglottis is elastic cartilage that is attached to the entrance of the larynx and prevents food and liquids from entering the airway.  In humans, the larynx is positioned much lower in body, which results in an increased risk of choking.  The position of the voice box also …

Body Planes

The planes of the body are one of the first topics in Anatomy and Physiology.   The concept relies on understanding the orientation of the specimen. Sagittal =  cuts the body into a left and right side  (red) Coronal = cuts the body into a front and back …

Osteocytes and the Bone Matrix

Osteocytes are bone cells  that sit within chambers called lacuna.   Lacuna are connective via tine canals called canaliculi and form concentric circles around a central haversian canal.   This coloring worksheet may help with your understanding of these relationships. It can be very difficult to develop a …

Clavicle

The clavicle is commonly called the collarbone and it located in the upper chest region.  The word “clavicle” is latin for “little key” because it rotates like a key when the shoulder and arm are extended.  The clavicle connects to the acromion process of the scapula and the …

Tibia and Fibula

The lower leg bones of the human consist of the large tibia, which is commonly called the shinbone, and the smaller fibula which is located laterally.  Several features of these bones are visible from the outside of the body.  The large tibial tuberosity, is visible as a bulge just …

Femur – Distal End

The lower end of the femur, called the distal end, articulates with the tibia of the lower leg.   It consists of two large structures called condyles, which is the greek word for “knuckle.”   In fact, if you go to a butcher shop, you can order a …

Femur – Proximal End

The proximal end of the femur articulates with the hip.  The rounded head of the femur fits within the acetabulum of the coxal bones, forming a ball-and-socket joint.  The fovea capitis is a small depression in the head serves as an attachment point for ligaments.   The greater trochanter …