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Body Planes

The planes of the body are one of the first topics in Anatomy and Physiology.   The concept relies on understanding the orientation of the specimen. Sagittal =  cuts the body into a left

Osteocytes and the Bone Matrix

Osteocytes are bone cells  that sit within chambers called lacuna.   Lacuna are connective via tine canals called canaliculi and form concentric circles around a central haversian canal.   This coloring


The clavicle is commonly called the collarbone and it located in the upper chest region.  The word “clavicle” is latin for “little key” because it rotates like a key when the shoulder and arm are

Tibia and Fibula

The lower leg bones of the human consist of the large tibia, which is commonly called the shinbone, and the smaller fibula which is located laterally.  Several features of these bones are visible

Femur – Distal End

The lower end of the femur, called the distal end, articulates with the tibia of the lower leg.   It consists of two large structures called condyles, which is the greek word

Femur – Proximal End

The proximal end of the femur articulates with the hip.  The rounded head of the femur fits within the acetabulum of the coxal bones, forming a ball-and-socket joint.  The fovea capitis is

Iliolumbar Artery

The iliolumbar arteries are named for their location, supplying blood to the lumbar region of the back and the ilium of the  of the pelvis.  They branch from the abdominal aorta just above where


The trachea is also called the windpipe and it connects the mouth to the lungs.   It is distinguished from the nearby esophagus by the presence of cartilage rings which prevent the airway from collapsing.