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Muscles of the Leg (Human)

The thigh muscles are often collectively called the quadriceps, which consist of four separate muscles:  rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and the vastus intermedius.  On most diagrams, the rectus femoris is shown as the front muscle that runs parallel to the femur.   The word “rectus” means …

Radius and Ulna

The lower arm consists of two bones, the radius and the ulna.  The ulna articulates with the humerus to form a hinge joint.  The radius articulates with the ulna at the radial notch and forms a pivot joint, allowing for the rotation of the wrist. This type of …

Ulna and Humerus

The ulna is one of two bones found in the forearm.  It forms a hinge joint with the humerus and a pivot joint with the radius, giving the lower arm the range of motion to bend and rotate the hands.   On anatomical drawings, the ulna and radius …

Stomach of a Cow

You may have heard that cows have 4 stomachs, but that is not actually accurate.  Cows, like all other vertebrates, have the same basic blueprint for the digestive system: mouth –> esophagus –>  stomach  –> small intestine –> large intestine  –> anus There is one stomach, but that stomach is …

Superior Colliculus

The superior colliculus is part of the midbrain, also known as the tectum in non-mammalian vertebrates.  This area of the brain directs behavioral responses, particularly how the eyes respond to stimulus and the corresponding movement of the head and neck. If you are looking for this structure in …

Epithelial Tissue

Epithelial tissue serves as a covering for external structures (skin) and internal organs.  There are many categories of epithelial cells that many beginning anatomy students must learn to identify.   Generally, epithelial tissue is classified as either simple or stratified.  Stratified tissue consists of many layers of cells …

Epiglottis

The epiglottis is elastic cartilage that is attached to the entrance of the larynx and prevents food and liquids from entering the airway.  In humans, the larynx is positioned much lower in body, which results in an increased risk of choking.  The position of the voice box also …

Body Planes

The planes of the body are one of the first topics in Anatomy and Physiology.   The concept relies on understanding the orientation of the specimen. Sagittal =  cuts the body into a left and right side  (red) Coronal = cuts the body into a front and back …

Osteocytes and the Bone Matrix

Osteocytes are bone cells  that sit within chambers called lacuna.   Lacuna are connective via tine canals called canaliculi and form concentric circles around a central haversian canal.   This coloring worksheet may help with your understanding of these relationships. It can be very difficult to develop a …

Clavicle

The clavicle is commonly called the collarbone and it located in the upper chest region.  The word “clavicle” is latin for “little key” because it rotates like a key when the shoulder and arm are extended.  The clavicle connects to the acromion process of the scapula and the …